The second of the three great reports embodies the results of the investigation into the conditions of labor in the mines made by Lord Ashley's Mines Commission of The Mines Act of that resulted prohibited the employment in the mines of all women and of boys under thirteen. The original sources of the material are listed in footnotes in the book; I've put them in brackets after each subject heading. The explanatory notes between sections are by Scott and Baltzly; the links were, of course, added by me.
Valentine greetings have been popular since the Middle Ages, a time when prospective lovers said or sang their romantic verses. Written valentines began to appear after Paper valentines originated in the s, being exchanged in Europe and Victorian papers given in place of valentine gifts and oral or musical valentine greetings.
They were particularly popular in England. The first written valentine formerly known as "poetical or amorous addresses" is traditionally attributed to the imprisoned Charles, Duke of Orleans, in While confined in the Tower of London after the Battle of Agincourt, the young Duke reportedly passed his time by writing romantic verses for his wife in France.
Approximately sixty of the Duke's poems remain and can be seen among the royal papers in the British Museum. They are credited with being the first modern day valentines.
By the Sixteenth Century, written valentines were commonplace and by the Seventeenth Century, it was a widespread tradition in England and other Western countries for friends and sweethearts to exchange gifts and notes on February During the early s, Charles II of Sweden brought the Persian poetical art known as the "language of flowers" to Europe and throughout the Eighteenth Century, floral dictionaries were Victorian papers, permitting the exchange of romantic secrets via a lily or lilac, for example, culminating in entire conversations taking place within a bouquet of flowers.
The more popular the flower, the more traditions and meaning were associated with it. The red rose, for instance, believed to be the favored flower of Venus, Roman Goddess of Love, became universally accepted to represent romantic love.
Thus, the custom of giving red roses on Valentine's Day quickly gained popularity. Some time afterthe popularity of valentine cards in America began to grow with the import from England of valentine "writers.
One popular "writer" contained not only "be my valentine" types of verses for the men to send to their sweethearts, but also acceptances or "answers" which the ladies could then return.
Late Eighteenth Century and Early Nineteenth Century valentines were often religious in nature and it is possible that the "Sacred Heart" often depicted on these cards eventually became the "Valentine Heart" with the customarily accompanying Angel eventually becoming "Cupid.
It is thought the process probably took many days since the cards had every appearance of being machine-made. One popular style of early American card from to approximately was the "Daguerreotype," a photographic process using old-time tintype in the center of a card surrounded by an ornametal wreath.
Another was the "Mirror Valentine," which contained a small mirror placed in the center to reflect the face of the recipient.
However, the sending of valentine greetings in America did not become a true tradition until around the time of the Civil War when valentine cards often depicted sweethearts parting, or a tent with flaps that opened to reveal a soldier.
These were known as "windows. Another Civil War valentine novelty was for the card to have a place for the sender to include a lock of hair.
By the early s, valentines began to be assembled in factories. Such early manufactured valentines were rather simplistic, composed of black-and-white pictures painted by the factory workers.
Fancy valentines comprised of real lace and ribbons were introduced in the mids. Paper lace began to be introduced to the cards later in the s, These valentines also contained delicate and artistic messages with pictures of turtledoves, lovers' knots in gold or silver, bows and arrow, Cupids and bleeding hearts.
During the Victorian Era and its printing advances, Valentine cards became even more popular and the modern postal service of the age implmented the "penny post," which made it easier to mail written valentines. Prior to that time, postage was so expensive that most cards were hand-delivered and usually left on doorsteps.
Known as "penny postcards" because they were mailed with a one-penny postage stampthese valentine greetings were very popular from around to During this time, it was also considered "proper" to collect and display collections of postcards and trade cards in the Victorian and Edwardian parlor.
Friends and guests would be invited to sit for hours, leafing through albums while they visited.
This custom gained so much popularity that photographers, studios, printers and business continually strived for new and exciting subjects to satisfy a public which was anxious for innovative items in order to impress their acquaintances.
To make their cards stand out, people often sought for real photographic postcards. As opposed to mass-produced lithographs, these were actual photographs made with a postcard-printed back.
The photography studios frequently employed women to hand-tint and color the black-and-white images.Free Papers, Ideas and Templates: Debbi Moore Designs.
Physical concerns. A letter’s physical appearance, in addition to content, was a key concern for letter-writing guides. For men, they advocated as plain paper as could be made available, and for women a light spritz of perfume was sometimes acceptable.
Other sources, however, disagreed, and suggested high outward ornamentation such as . Applicants to become members of the Victorian Bar must first complete a readers' course and a period of readership under a mentor.
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