Reviews Forum Women Refusing the Gaze:
Sojourner Truth addressed the issue of women having limited rights due to men's flawed perception of women. Truth argued that if a woman of color can perform tasks that were supposedly limited to men, then any woman of any color could perform those same tasks.
After her arrest for illegally voting, Susan B. Anthony gave a speech within court in which she addressed the issues of language within the constitution documented in her publication, "Speech after Arrest for Illegal voting" in Anthony questioned the authoritative principles of the constitution and its male gendered language.
She raised the question of why women are accountable to be punished under law but they cannot use the law for their own protection women could not Theorizing the male gaze, own property, nor themselves in marriage.
She also critiqued the constitution for its male gendered language and questioned why women should have to abide by laws that do not specify women.
|Search form||Psychoanalysis[ edit ] The term was introduced to translate Freud 's Schaulust, or pleasure in looking. In the film, Norman Bates is revealed to have a peephole to one of the hotel rooms.|
Nancy Cott makes a distinction between modern feminism and its antecedents, particularly the struggle for suffrage.
In the United States she places the turning point in the decades before and after women obtained the vote in — She argues that the prior woman movement was primarily about woman as a universal entity, whereas over this year period it transformed itself into one primarily concerned with social differentiationattentive to individuality and diversity.
New issues dealt more with woman's condition as a social constructgender identityand relationships within and between genders. Politically this represented a shift from an ideological alignment comfortable with the right, to one more radically associated with the left. In this book and her essay, "Woman: For Theorizing the male gaze it is not a question of asserting themselves as women, but of becoming full-scale human beings.
Therefore, woman must regain subject, to escape her defined role as "other", as a Cartesian point of departure. Ironically, feminist philosophers have had to extract de Beauvoir herself from out of the shadow of Jean-Paul Sartre to fully appreciate her. The resurgence of feminist activism in the late s was accompanied by an emerging literature of concerns for the earth and spirituality, and environmentalism.
This in turn created an atmosphere conducive to reigniting the study of and debate on matricentricity, as a rejection of determinismsuch as Adrienne Rich  and Marilyn French  while for socialist feminists like Evelyn Reed patriarchy held the properties of capitalism.
Feminist psychologists, such as Jean Baker Millersought to bring a feminist analysis to previous psychological theories, proving that "there was nothing wrong with women, but rather with the way modern culture viewed them".
The first she calls "feminist critique" — where the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena.
The second Showalter calls "Gynocritics" — where the "woman is producer of textual meaning" including "the psychodynamics of female creativity; linguistics and the problem of a female language; the trajectory of the individual or collective female literary career and literary history ".
She also criticized it for not taking account of the situation for women outside the west. Feminist psychoanalysis deconstructed the phallic hypotheses regarding the Unconscious.
Julia KristevaBracha Ettinger and Luce Irigaray developed specific notions concerning unconscious sexual difference, the feminine and motherhood, with wide implications for film and literature analysis.
Additionally, these are also debates which shape feminist theory and they can be applied interchangeably in the arguments of feminist theorists.
Bodies[ edit ] In western thoughtthe body has been historically associated solely with women, whereas men have been associated with the mind. For example, women's bodies have been objectified throughout history through the changing ideologies of fashion, diet, exercise programs, cosmetic surgery, childbearing, etc.
This contrasts to men's role as a moral agent, responsible for working or fighting in bloody wars. The race and class of a woman can determine whether her body will be treated as decoration and protected, which is associated with middle or upper-class women's bodies.
On the other hand, the other body is recognized for its use in labor and exploitation which is generally associated with women's bodies in the working-class or with women of color. Second-wave feminist activism has argued for reproductive rights and choice, women's health movementand lesbian rights movement which are also associated with this Bodies debate.
The standard and contemporary sex and gender system[ edit ] The standard sex determination and gender model consists of evidence based on the determined sex and gender of every individual and serve as norms for societal life. Occasionally, mutations occur during the sex-determining process.
When this happens, the fetus becomes a hermaphrodite. Studies into biological sex-determining systems also have began working towards connecting certain gender conducts such as behaviors, actions, and desires with sex-determinism. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style.
July Learn how and when to remove this template message The socially-biasing children sex and gender model broadens the horizons of the sex and gender ideologies. It revises the ideology of sex to be a social construct which is not limited to either male or female.
The Intersex Society of North America which explains that, "nature doesn't decide where the category of 'male' ends and the category of ' intersex ' begins, or where the category of 'intersex' ends and the category of 'female' begins.
Humans today, typically doctors decide how small a penis has to be, or how unusual a combination of parts has to be, before it counts as intersex". The ideology of gender remains a social construct but is not as strict and fixed. Instead, gender is easily malleable, and is forever changing.
One example of where the standard definition of gender alters with time happens to be depicted in Sally Shuttleworth 's Female Circulation in which the, "abasement of the woman, reducing her from an active participant in the labor market to the passive bodily existence to be controlled by male expertise is indicative of the ways in which the ideological deployment of gender roles operated to facilitate and sustain the changing structure of familial and market relations in Victorian England".This compelling account of the author's experience with a chronic pain disorder and subsequent interaction with the American health care system goes to the heart of the workings of power and culture in the biomedical domain.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender heartoftexashop.com examines women's and men's social roles, experiences, interests, chores, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, media studies, psychoanalysis, home economics, literature.
Most successful professions emerged as male middle-class projects based on scientific knowledge and are organized to promote the self-interests of those involved and to protect their turf.
Sep 09, · In "Looking for the Gaze: Lacanian Film Theory and Its Vicissitudes," Todd McGowan argues that reading Lacan's theory of the gaze as one of "mastery," as does Laura Mulvey, as well as many early feminist film critics, is a misreading of Lacan, representing only half of Lacan's theory.
Feminist analysis has revealed that when feminism characterizes “The male Gaze” certain motifs are almost sure to appear; voyeurism, objectification, fetishism, scopophilia, woman as the object of male gaze and the bearer of the male lack.
Masculine vision is almost characterized as patriarchal, ideological and phallocentric. Several stories interweave during two days in Los Angeles involving a collection of inter-related characters, a police detective with a drugged out mother and a thieving younger brother, two car thieves who are constantly theorizing on society and race, the white district attorney and his irritated and pampered wife, a racist white veteran cop (caring for a sick father at home) who disgusts.