When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Reference citations in text are covered on pages of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.
APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research, for example, Jones found or Jones has found If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.
All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: According to Jones"Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p.
Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. Long quotations Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks.
The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources.
This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help.
According to JonesAPA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones,p.Titles: Underline, Italics, or Quotations?
(printable version here) When writing about other works, it's hard to decide when to underline (or place in italics) a title and when to place it in double quotations. A guide to help users create citations using APA (American Psychological Association) style, 6th edition.
You do not italicize the titles for items in online communities such as blogs, newsgroups or forum. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name.
This resource is available for use in the Writing Center. • APA citations consist of author’s last name and year of publication. • Italicize titles of books, edited collections, movies, television series, albums, etc. 11 Quotation Examples. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).
Reference citations in text are covered on pages of the Publication Manual. (Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.) When capitalizing titles. APA Style: Handling Quotations, Citations, and References Selected by the Writing Center at Armstrong Atlantic State University, the examples in this handout are based on the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (August ).
The formatting of the titles of sources you use in your paper depends on two factors: (a) the independence of the source (stands alone vs. part of a greater whole) and (b) the location of the title (in the text of the paper vs.
in the reference list entry).