Alexis de TocquevilleFrench historian The word "centralization" came into use in France in as the post- French Revolution French Directory leadership created a new government structure. The word "decentralization" came into usage in the s. In the mids Tocqueville would write that the French Revolution began with "a push towards decentralization
Factors influencing the decentralization decision PURPOSE The objective of this chapter is to examine some of the main theoretical and practical issues relating to the decentralization decision. The various economic reasons why governments may wish to be involved in the provision of agricultural services will be the first issue to be explored.
This will be followed by a discussion of three of the main principles determining the form and extent of decentralization, namely subsidiarity, specialization and jurisdictional spillover. The practical issues examined mainly relate to organizational factors affecting the outcome of institutional reform.
KEY POINTS The main reasons why governments become involved in the provision of agricultural services relate to market failure, merit goods and the redistribution of income.
The provision of services can be disaggregated into four components - financing, production, regulation and consumption - and there is no necessity for these to be provided by the same sector, organization or level of governance.
Three key principles in deciding the appropriate form of decentralization relate to subsidiarity, jurisdictional spillover and specialization. As decentralization requires organizations, and the relationships between them to be modified, an understanding of organizational culture, power configurations and the motivations and roles of politicians and bureaucrats in government is required.
This term is used to describe situations where the unfettered use of the market system or the private sector to allocate goods or services would not lead to a economically efficient  outcome where the price of the good adequately reflects the opportunity costs Decntralised government systems with reference to society of producing it.
Excludability and rivalrousness One source of market failure is low excludability  and low rivalrousness . These features characterise pure public goods such as the law, the rules and regulations established by public agencies, and the services provided by the national defence system, the police, the judiciary system, and agricultural inspection agencies.
Classification of goods However, for many agricultural services the degree of excludability or rivalrousness is often determined by the precise nature of the service and the conditions under which it is delivered.
Thus similar services, such as extension advice, may be delivered by the private sector in some situations but can only be provided efficiently by the public sector in others.
The private sector or civil society organizations supply many toll goods and charge users for them.
However, if there is a monopoly provider there may be a case for some form of government intervention in their provision to prevent prices being charged that are higher than those justified on economically efficient grounds.
This often applies to grazing land where customary law defines who can share the grazing rights in land. As we will see in Chapter 11 it also often applies to water supplies where it is important to ensure adequate access to all parties.
At the other extreme end of this spectrum are pure private goods that are both excludable and fully rivalrous. Fertilizer has both these characteristics and is an example of the typical goods that can be provided efficiently by the private sector and exchanged in the market .
Where the externalities are associated with what are typically considered to be private goods, governments often intervene in the provision of the good through regulatory or fiscal instruments to bring production and consumption more in line with a economically efficient outcome. Direct controls on production, taxes and subsidies and the creation of property rights and markets in externalities  are the main instruments used for this purpose.
However, where governance is weak and government regulations or fiscal instruments would be ignored, a government may feel that it has no option but to physically produce the product itself.
Some monopoly situations actually arise from government actions such as the exclusive right granted by a government to a public or private sector agent to purchase agricultural products from farmers. Other monopolistic tendencies result from control of an exclusive source of supply for example, a water well or the foundation material of hybrid seedsfrom market fragmentation, economies of scale, poor infrastructure and lack of credit.
Governments can reduce these tendencies by adopting policies that encourage competition and free trade and ensure that artificial barriers to entry are removed for domestic and foreign suppliers. However, in the case of natural monopolies where economic efficiency requires price to be set below the average cost of production but unregulated monopolies are tempted to set a price above the full costs of production, governments are likely to assume responsibility for producing the good or service themselves.
All of these particularly affect agricultural service provision to remote areas and may make it prohibitively expensive for the private sector to provide some types of goods and services.
Merit goods So far we have considered the various types of market failure that may justify some form of government intervention to achieve economic efficiency.
These are goods or services that governments mandate individuals to consume, either to protect themselves from others or themselves where it is judged that people, left to their own devices, may not act in their own best interests .
This paternalistic reason for intervention, when a government intervenes because it claims to know what is in the best interest of individuals better than they themselves do, should not be confused with government intervention to correct externalities. For example, the government may wish to intervene by providing safety nets to ensure that people who are temporarily or permanently disadvantaged have access to minimum levels of certain goods and services.
If re-election depends on the votes of urban consumers rather than those who live in rural areas then one may expect to see increased provision of subsidized goods and services in urban areas and the relative neglect, or even increased taxation, of goods and services for rural areas. However, if a government is more concerned with reducing inequalities in income or in poverty alleviation then its interventions in the provision of goods and services may be entirely different, particularly if poverty is mainly a rural phenomenon.
However, as will be stressed throughout this Sourcebook, one of the bases of the institutional reforms carried out in recent decades is the appreciation that the provision of any good or service can be disaggregated into four components:DECENTRALIZATION AND DECENTRALIZED GOVERNANCE FOR ENHANCING DELIVERY OF SERVICES IN TRANSITION CONDITIONS This paper is offered as a background paper for the Regional Forum on “Enhancing Trust in Government through Leadership Capacity Building”, to be held in heartoftexashop.comburg, September The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this .
Distributed generation from wind hybrid power systems combines wind power with other DER systems. One such example is the integration of wind turbines into solar hybrid power systems, as wind tends to complement solar because the peak operating times for each system occur at .
Decision-making is about authority.A key question is whether authority should rest with senior management at the centre of a business (centralised), or whether it should be delegated further down the hierarchy, away from the centre (decentralised)The choice between centralised or decentralised is .
Decentralization in any area is a response to the problems of centralized systems. Decentralization in government, the topic most studied, has been seen as a solution to problems like economic decline, government inability to fund services and their general decline in performance of overloaded services.
A federal government has separate, independently functioning branches that serve to balance government power. The US is a federal government. Great Britain however, operates on a central parliamentary system in which the parliament is the main government branch. African political systems are described in a number of textbooks and general books on African history.
Ehret emphasizes the diversity and long history of precolonial social and political formations, whereas Curtin, et al.
focuses on social, economic, and intellectual trends up .