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When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Footnotes and Endnotes Summary: APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types of footnotes: When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark.
Footnote numbers should not follow dashes —and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses. Scientists examined—over several years1—the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak.
Footnotes may also appear on the final page of your document usually this is after the References page. Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote. Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules. Content Notes Content notes provide supplemental information to your readers. When providing content notes, be brief and focus on only one subject.
Try to limit your comments to one small paragraph. Content notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere.
All other sources simply appear in the reference list. Follow the same formatting rules as with content notes for noting copyright permissions. Then attach a copy of the permission letter to the document.
If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information. You should also submit written permission along with your work. Smith,Journal Title, 21, p. Copyright by Copyright Holder.In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes.
Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography.
Jul 29, · If you do not know where to find the menu to insert footnotes in your word processing program, go to the help menu and research it before starting to footnote your paper.
3 Cite your quotation or reference%(92). To type a Footnote citation, the same superscript number is put at the beginning of the Footnote at the bottom of the same page where the citation occurs.
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, Need help with formatting your paper in MLA Style? Find more help Here. WE CAN HELP YOU With Your Research Paper. Sep 17, · Footnotes are useful, as providing helpful supplementary information and citations at the bottom of a page of text.
Typically, editors will suggest that parenthetical information be put into footnotes as a way of keeping the flow of the prose intact. Used judiciously, the footnote can be a 85%(98). How to Write Footnotes in Research Papers; More Info.
English. Español.. Check Out the Official Book. The MLA style in text citation has two variations, the author/page number, although the modern trend is for author/year/page number, such as (Sargeant , 17).
Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the first time the source is being used.