Fortieth Session of the Commission on Population and Development: General debate on National Experience in Population Matters: Monday, April 9, - Chairman, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen, The International Organization for Migration IOM welcomes this opportunity to take the floor today, to speak about the changing age structures of populations and their implications for development.
History[ edit ] Aerial view of the Hawthorne Works, ca. Landsberger  when he was analyzing earlier experiments from —32 at the Hawthorne Works a Western Electric factory outside Chicago.
The Hawthorne Works had commissioned a study to see if its workers would become more productive in higher or lower levels of light. It was suggested that the productivity gain occurred as a result of the motivational effect on the workers of the interest being shown in them.
This effect was observed for minute increases in illumination. In these lighting studies, light intensity was altered to examine its effect on worker productivity. Thus the term is used to identify any type of short-lived increase in productivity.
Together the women worked in a separate room over the course of five years — assembling telephone relays. Output was measured mechanically by counting how many finished relays each worker dropped down a chute.
This measuring began in secret two weeks before moving the women to an experiment room and continued throughout the study. In the experiment room they had a supervisor who discussed changes with their productivity. Some of the variables were: Giving two 5-minute breaks after a discussion with them on the best length of timeand then changing to two minute breaks not Changing age structure implications for preference.
Productivity increased, but when they received six 5-minute rests, they disliked it and reduced output. Providing food during the breaks. Shortening the day by 30 minutes output went up ; shortening it more output per hour went up, but overall output decreased ; returning to the first condition where output peaked.
Changing a variable usually increased productivity, even if the variable was just a change back to the original condition. However it is said that this is the natural process of the human being adapting to the environment, without knowing the objective of the experiment occurring.
Researchers concluded that the workers worked harder because they thought that they were being monitored individually. One interpretation, mainly due to Elton Mayo was that "the six individuals became a team and the team gave itself wholeheartedly and spontaneously to cooperation in the experiment.
Bank wiring room experiments[ edit ] The purpose of the next study was to find out how payment incentives would affect productivity.
The surprising result was that productivity actually decreased. Workers apparently had become suspicious that their productivity may have been boosted to justify firing some of the workers later on. Lloyd Warner between and on a group of fourteen men who put together telephone switching equipment.
The researchers found that although the workers were paid according to individual productivity, productivity decreased because the men were afraid that the company would lower the base rate. Detailed observation of the men revealed the existence of informal groups or "cliques" within the formal groups.
These cliques developed informal rules of behavior as well as mechanisms to enforce them. The cliques served to control group members and to manage bosses; when bosses asked questions, clique members gave the same responses, even if they were untrue.
These results show that workers were more responsive to the social force of their peer groups than to the control and incentives of management. Interpretation and criticism[ edit ] Richard Nisbett has described the Hawthorne effect as "a glorified anecdote", saying that "once you have got the anecdote, you can throw away the data.
Adair warns of gross factual inaccuracy in most secondary publications on Hawthorne effect and that many studies failed to find it. This can affect whether participants believe something, if they act on it or do not see it as in their interest, etc.
Receiving feedback on their performance may improve their skills when an experiment provides this feedback for the first time. His key argument is that in the studies where workers dropped their finished goods down chutes, the participants had access to the counters of their work rate.
He does say that this experiment is about testing overall effect, not testing factors separately. He also discusses it not really as an experimenter effect but as a management effect: A lot to do with feeling free, not feeling supervised but more in control as a group.In the absence of a conscious effort to control the size of families, the larger the fraction of the population who are in the fertile age range the more rapid will be the population growth, and this will influence the average age of the population structure towards the younger end of the spectrum.
Literature has been a subject of study in many countries at a secondary or tertiary level, but until recently has not been given much emphasis in the EFL/ESL classroom. The changing age structure of the population has potentially significant implications for economic development, labour markets and well-being in different development contexts.
The Global Impact of Demographic Change Nicoletta Batini, Tim Callen, and explored the macroeconomic implications of demographic change and describes the model boosted population growth, although initially there was little change in the age structure of.
Frequently, this assumption is necessary because age structure is rarely estimated. However, management actions can greatly affect the age distribution of a population. For initially growing and declining populations, we instituted hypothetical management targeted at halting the growth or decline of the population, and measured the effects of a.
The Hawthorne effect (also referred to as the observer effect) is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed. The original research at the Hawthorne Works in Cicero, Illinois, on lighting changes and work structure changes such as working hours and break times .