Drinking Horn from the Hallstatt culture Brooches found in a grave of the Hallstatt culture The Hallstatt era is named after the city Hallstatt in Austriawhere the first artifacts were found.
What are the important causes for the beginning of the Renaissance in Europe? The Renaissance was rendered possible by a combination of number of factors which were as follows: In the first place the decline of feudalism, which was the basis of life during the medieval period, greatly contributed to the rise of Renaissance.
The feudalism which began to decline by the close of the thirteenth century in France and Italy virtually disappeared from Western European countries by the A. The one major factor which played a dominant role in the decline of feudalism was the rise of the middle class comprising of traders and businessmen.
These middle classes provided the kings necessary money for the maintenance of armies and thereby enabled them to reduce their dependence on the feudal Causes of decline of feudalism in.
Further, due to development of trade and commerce during this period, there was great increase in prices which greatly benefited the craftsmen, merchants and cultivators.
As the feudal lords were not able to repay the debts they were often obliged to sell off their lands. This gave a serious set back to feudalism and manorial life.
All this paved the way for the Renaissance. Impact of the Crusades. The Crusades or the wars between the Christians and Muslims which were fought between 11th and 14th century and which ultimately resulted in the victory of the Muslims also provided an impetus to Renaissance.
As a result of the Crusades the Western scholars came in contact with the East which was more civilized and polished than the Christians.
A number of Western scholars went to the universities of Cairo, Kufa and Cardona etc and learnt many new ideas, which they subsequently spread in Europe.
Decline in the influence of Church: The Church which dominated the medieval society suffered a set back in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
The temporal power of the Church was challenged by a number of strong monarchs. This gave a serious blow to the power and prestige of the Pope. Even the common people lost faith in Church due to rise of numerous rituals. They preferred to pay greater attention to the present life rather than the life after death.
No wonder they did not find the medieval ideals of other worldliness and asceticism satisfactory. The Crusades provided an impetus to trade and commerce in the 12th and 13th centuries and the trade between eastern and western countries greatly increased.
This greatly contributed to the wealth and prosperity of the people in Italy and a wealthy class of traders, bankers and manufacturers emerged.
This class tried to display its wealth and bolster its social importance by patronizing artists and scholars.
Invention of Printing Press and Paper: The discovery of the printing press in by Gutenberg of Mainz also greatly assisted in the revival of the learning. Soon thereafter a number of printers appeared in Italy. The printing press was introduced in England by Caxton in Edith Sichel highlights the role of the printing in Renaissance thus, "Printing remained the source of irrigation which fertilized the world of intelligence.
Earlier, the books were produced by monastic copyist or printed by presses set up in cloisters and only those books reached the general public which were approved by the Church. The Fall of Constantinople, in the hands of the Turks in A. A large number of Greek and Roman scholars who were working in the libraries at Constantinople, fled to different parts of Europe with valuable literature.
They began teaching Greek and Latin in various European countries.Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to heartoftexashop.com was a condition of bondage, which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages in Europe and lasted in some countries until the midth century..
As with slaves, serfs could be bought, sold, or traded, abused with no rights over their own . An index page listing Older Than Feudalism content. All of The Oldest Ones in the Book first recorded after the invention of the Greek alphabet (c.
BC) . Terrorism in Pakistan has become a major and highly destructive phenomenon in recent years. The annual death toll from terrorist attacks has risen from in to in , with a total of 35, Pakistanis killed between 11 September and May According to the government of Pakistan, the direct and indirect economic costs of terrorism from – total $68 billion.
How did the Years War result in the decline of Feudalism? Kings no longer need nobles to supply knights, military technology improves, power shifts from lords to monarchs to commoners What was the cause of the Crusades?
THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much.
The Renaissance was rendered possible by a combination of number of factors which were as follows: 1. Decline of Feudalism. In the first place the decline of feudalism, which was the basis of life during the medieval period, greatly contributed to .