Among the Romans this letter was used in criminal trials. The judges were furnished with small tables covered with wax, and each one inscribed on it the initial letter of his vote; A, when he voted to absolve the party on trial; C, when he was for condemnation; and N L, non liquet when the matter did not appear clearly, and be desired a new argument. A divorce a mensa et thoro, is rather a separation of the parties by act of law, than a dissolution of the marriage.
Etymology[ edit ] A popular but false account of the origin of the term's present meaning is the story that less wealthy workers in France, who wore not leather but wooden shoes, used to throw these sabots into the machines to disrupt production.
Labor unions such as the Industrial Workers of the World IWW have advocated sabotage as a means of self-defense and direct action against unfair working conditions. The IWW was shaped in part by the industrial unionism philosophy of Big Bill Haywoodand in Haywood was exposed to sabotage while touring Europe: The experience that had the most lasting impact on Haywood was witnessing a general strike on the French railroads.
Tired of waiting for parliament to act on their demands, railroad business plan canvas francais dictionnaire walked off their jobs all across the country. The French government responded by drafting the strikers into the army and then ordering them back to work.
Undaunted, the workers carried their strike to the job. Suddenly, they could not seem to do anything right. Perishables sat for weeks, sidetracked and forgotten.
Freight bound for Paris was misdirected to Lyon or Marseille instead. This tactic — the French called it "sabotage" — won the strikers their demands and impressed Bill Haywood. The causes were not clear, but three possible factors have been cited: Ecotage Certain groups turn to destruction of property to stop environmental destruction or to make visible arguments against forms of modern technology they consider detrimental to the environment.
Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI and other law enforcement agencies use the term eco-terrorist when applied to damage of property.
Proponents argue that since property cannot feel terror, damage to property is more accurately described as sabotage. Opponents, by contrast, point out that property owners and operators can indeed feel terror.
The image of the monkey wrench thrown into the moving parts of a machine to stop it from working was popularized by Edward Abbey in the novel The Monkey Wrench Gang and has been adopted by eco-activists to describe destruction of earth damaging machinery.
From to late a radical environmental activist movement known as ELF or Earth Liberation Front engaged in a near constant campaign of decentralized sabotage of any construction projects near wild lands and extractive industries such as logging and even the burning down of a ski resort of Vail Colorado.
Prime examples of such sabotage are the events of Black Tom and the Kingsland Explosion. Like spies, saboteurs who conduct a military operation in civilian clothes or enemy uniforms behind enemy lines are subject to prosecution and criminal penalties instead of detention as prisoners of war.
Similarly, German nationalists spoke of a stab in the back having cost them the loss of World War I. For example, the U. A more recent case may be the Stuxnet computer wormwhich was designed to subtly infect and damage specific types of industrial equipment.
Based on the equipment targeted and the location of infected machines, security experts believe it was an attack on the Iranian nuclear program by the United StatesIsrael or, according to the latest news, even Russia. Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI investigated 19, cases of sabotage and concluded the enemy had not caused any of them.
Simple sabotage is carried out in such a way as to involve a minimum danger of injury, detection, and reprisal. There are two main methods of sabotage; physical destruction and the "human element".
While physical destruction as a method is self-explanatory, its targets are nuanced, reflecting objects to which the saboteur has normal and inconspicuous access in everyday life. The "human element" is based on universal opportunities to make faulty decisions, to adopt a non-cooperative attitude, and to induce others to follow suit.
However, one of the most effective uses of sabotage is against organizations. When possible, refer all matters to committees for "further study and consideration".Politique de confidentialité FILMube.
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