Alexander ii and reform

The young Rodrigo had not yet definitely chosen his profession when the elevation of his uncle to the papacy opened up new prospects to his ambition. He was adopted into the immediate family of Callixtus and was known henceforward to the Italians as Rodrigo Borgia. Like so many other princely cadets, he was obtruded upon the Churchthe question of a clerical vocation being left completely out of consideration.

Alexander ii and reform

This dramatic event, counted as Seleucus' first regal year, was continued as the Seleucid Era, the first continuous count of time in world chronology, soon to inspire the similar Arsacid Era of Parthia. There is also the residual uncertainty about Hellenistic dating. Bickerman, for instance, positively asserted that Seleucus reconquered Babylon "in August of " [Chronology of the Ancient World, Cornell University Press,p.

Seleucus] was given a thousand men by Ptolemy and set out from Palestine to Babylonia" [Dividing the Spoils, Oxford,p. While we may have more confidence in up-to-date scholarship, Alexander ii and reform older analyses are later Alexander ii and reform.

As recounted aboveSeleucus had to fend off two major efforts against him to recover Babylon for Antigonus Monophthalmos. With Babylon secure, he was able to take control of the vast Iranian hinterland, the geographical bulk of Alexander's Empire.

However, Seleucus leaves India to the growing power of the Mauryasand was compensated with war elephants that he then began to breed himself. Having defeated and killed Antigonus and LysimachusSeleucus was about to add Thrace to his kingdom when, stepping out of the boat in Europe, he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, whom he had taken in as a refugee from his father, Ptolemy I.

Ceraunus is also said to have killed Seleucus while they were hunting together near Lysmacheia, which had been Lysimachus' capital on the Gallipoli peninsula.

Ceraunus claimed the throne of Thrace and Macedon, while the rest of Seleucus' domain passed to his half-Iranian son Antiochus. The capital of the kingdom, Seleucia, founded on the Tigris, began to replace Babylon as the metropolitan city of the region, but it did not achieve the historical significance and permanence of Alexandria in Egypt.

A more permanent city of historical importance and fame would be Antioch in Syria now in Turkey. While Seleucid authority was never fully established over several kingdoms in Anatolia, like Armenia and Pontusmore distant areas, like Parthia and Bactriabegan to drift away. Antiochus III stopped this process and began to reverse it, marching to India and wresting Palestine from the Ptolemies, but then had the misfortune to become the first Seleucid to clash with Rome.

His defeat in began a steep decline for the kingdom. Bythe Seleucids would be confined to Syria. Their last 60 years would be consumed with pointless dynastic conflict and fragmentation, and 14 years of Armenian occupation.

Then Rome would pick up the pieces. Pompey "settles the East" in 63 BC with the annexation of the remaining Seleucid lands and the reduction of other local states, like Judaeato Roman clients.

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Neo- 3. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Greek 4. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Carian 5. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Greek 6.

The Colossus of Rhodes Greek 7. The Temple of Artemis, at least the one familiar in the Hellenistic Age an earlier templed dated from the 6th centuryand the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus were products of the 4th century; and King Mausolus d. The last two Wonders were then actual products of the Hellenistic Age, in the 3th century.

The Colossus of Rhodes was constructed by a surviving Greek city state, to celebrate its delivery from the siege of Demetrius Poliorcetes in ; but then the Pharos Lighthouse was one of the supreme symbols of Hellenistic Monarchy, built by Ptolemy I and II in the first and greatest city of Alexander, marking its location, day and light, on the edge of the otherwise flat and undistinguished Delta of Egypt.

Alexander ii and reform

The Colossus of Rhodes did not survive long as constructed. It fell in an earthquake in BC. Reconstructed as a still surviving fort, the massive masonry blocks of the Lighthouse can even now be inspected.

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The Crusaders built a fort out of the Mausoleum also, and it is hard to know how much damage it may already have endured.

The Temple of Artemis suffered more than one act of destruction. The pre-Hellenistic temple was set on fire by an aronist in It is unclear whether this completely destroyed the temple or not.

As the area of Ephesus silted up, the site was buried.

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When excavated after its discovery inthe "Englishman's Pit" subsequently filled up with water. It then looked like a small abandoned lake with a few stones and columns visible above water. Much of the stone may have been taken for other projects, including the Church of Sancta Sophia in Constantinople.

The Statue of Zeus from Olympia was relocated to Constantiople at its building, along with masses of other Classical statuary of whose existence we still seem to be learning, and kept at the Lauseion Palace.

When the Palace burned inthe statue was lost, along with others, such as the famous Aphrodite of Cnidus.

But there are other reports that the statue of Zeus had not been moved to Constantinople at all, leaving its fate uncertain. Most uncertain of all is the fate of the Hanging Gardens. Archaeologists have been entirely unable to identify a possible site for the Gardens in the excavations of Babylon.

Because of this, some now doubt whether the Gardens even existed, at least in the form commonly described on terraces, etc.A History of the Popes: Volume II: Middle Ages to the Protestant Reform (Volume 2) [Wyatt North] on heartoftexashop.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

The office of bishop of Rome, is one of the most powerful positions in the world. As an ancient institution stretching back for centuries. The book does not concentrate only on Alexander II but describes also the political situation during his reign.

Consequentially the reader gets a whole picture of circumstances that triggered the further developments and reactions of Alexander II and his advisors. Hellenistic Monarchs down to the Roman Empire. The Hellenistic Age suffers from some of the same disabilities as Late Antiquity, i.e.

it doesn't measure up to the brilliance of the Golden Age of Greece and of late Republican and early Imperial Rome. Rodrigo Borgia, born at Xativa, near Valencia, in Spain, 1 January, ; died in Rome, 18 August, His parents were Jofre Lançol and Isabella Borja, sister of Cardinal Alfonso Borja, later Pope Callixtus III..

The young Rodrigo had not yet definitely chosen his profession when the elevation of his uncle to the papacy () opened up new prospects to his ambition. lernte Alexander II. seine spätere Frau, die Prinzessin Marie von Hessen und bei Rhein, kennen, die zu dem Zeitpunkt erst 15 Jahre alt heartoftexashop.com Hochzeit fand am 4.

April jul.

Alexander ii and reform

/ April greg. statt. Auch gegen den erheblichen Widerstand am Zarenhof und sogar diplomatische Interventionen hatte Alexander seine Wahl durchgesetzt. Greeks and Macedonians E. Badian, Department of History, Harvard University "Studies In The History Of Art Vol Macedonia And Greece In Late Classical And Early Hellenistic Times", The National Gallery Of Art, Washington,

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Alexander VI